The King’s Valley
The King Face as shown in Figure 1 has had an interesting history since its discovery. Found by Greg Orme on the 9th of July 2000 it was found to be highly significant by the Society of Planetary SETI Research, an association of scientists examining possible SETI signs in our solar system. The authors are also members of this organization. On May 8th Tom Van Flandern a former Naval Observatory Astronomer, member of SPSR, and founder of the online metaresearch.org held a press conference on various findings by SPSR on Mars.
The reaction of the press to the King Face was very strong. Over
the next few days the King Face appeared in the New York Post and on Good
Morning America. Also FOX News had a half hour special with Bridgitte Quinn that
partially focused on the King Face. In addition newspapers and TV stations in
It was clear then whether it was artificial or not the King Face had a visceral impact on people as looking artificial to some degree, as did the Cydonia face. At the same time there are defects in the King face shape which lead many to assert it is a natural landform. The purpose of this paper is to present both sides of this controversy. Also there have been other faces found in this valley, leading to the nicknames of the King’s Valley or the Martian Mount Rushmore.
The original of the King Face can be seen at Malin Space Science Systems as M0203051 about half way down the image. There are two other images of the King’s Valley, M0303483 and E1100360. M0303483 just catches one eye of the King Face and shows additional faces in the valley. E1100360 shows the opposite side of the valley and additional faces. In this paper we will go through all the faces and fragments of possible artificiality, and show how the King Face might be the center of three faces arranged to show sequentially in the changing daylight and seasons.
In Figure 2 the main area of interest in M0203051 is seen and in Figure 3 some of the features and defects are shown. A shows the left eye of the King Face which is quite well shaped. B shows the right eye which is more oddly shaped. The left eye appears to have an iris in the eye but the right eye has an empty shape in the iris. Also the shape of the right eye seems more similar to a left eye in orientation, and as we will see later there is a second face to the right this eye can also be used for. It may be then that this eye was made to be appearing as one eye shape with certain shadows and another eye shape with other shadows.
If so then one face may have appeared in the morning for example and one in the afternoon. C shows the end of the nose in which a tip and two nostril shapes are clearly seen. There is also a ridge connecting the nose tip to half way between the eyes, though the nose seems to curve to the left side rather than being symmetrical. D shows the mouth shape which is more indistinct but is very close to the correct anatomical position. E shows a line consistent with the bottom edge of a crown, which fits in with the idea of a hat. The Crown shape is reasonably symmetrical. F shows an eyebrow like shape that is not very accurate anatomically. G shows the right eyebrow which is also not very accurate. H shows the left side jaw line which is quite clear and accurate except it goes more to a point, though this could be a beard shape. The right side has no clear chin shape, though this could be from erosion.
Overall then the main King Face has some features which give it a striking humanoid appearance, while others are out of shape or missing altogether. Since it is likely a builder was skilled enough and acquainted with humanoid faces there seems little excuse for anatomical defects. There should then either be a reason for these defects, they could have occurred through erosion, or the subject of the design was not fully humanoid as we would define it.
Figure 4 shows a Crown like shape to the left of the King Face, and Figure 5 some details on it. A shows the top of two apparent ridges that come from the top of the crown and point in at each other. B shows the edge of a crown line which continues on to the right. C shows a shape which may be part of the crown, like an animal or snake head. The ground below this is very smooth and it may be buried under sand. It is possible then, with no way to tell, that there may be a face connected to the crown buried here.
Figure 6 shows another face shape, very eroded just to the left of the King Face. Because this face may appear more clearly in the morning, the King Face at noon and the next face in the evening I refer to this one as the Morning Face. Its details will be shown later. Figure 7 shows the Evening Face just to the right of the King Face. More will be explained about this later. Figure 8 shows a possible face looking to the right, outlined in Figure 9. This may be partially buried around the nose and mouth. I call this Face 4, the Morning King and Evening Faces being also Faces One, Two, and Three..
Figure 10 shows another face looking down, I call this Face 5. Figure 11 shows a face with Torso with an apparent crown. Figure 12 shows this right side up and outlined. I call this Face 6. Figure 13 shows a face shape on the left and part of one on the right, called Face 7 and 8 respectively. Face 8 is more clearly seen in Photo M303483 later. Figure 14 shows the outline of both faces.
Shape from Shading
I also used some shape by shading techniques to get some idea of the 3 dimensional shapes of these formations. The idea is by changing the sun angle in the software one can make a particular section stand out in shade. Often this also makes other less artificial looking features stand out as well. Figure 15 shows an artificial sun angle looking down the King Face. This brings out several interesting features. The eyes are seen here to have cavities quite close anatomically, and the left ear shape comes out and is in the right position.
Figure 16 from a different sun angle shows the mouth is in the right shape, but there are several horizontal ridges it attaches to which imply a natural formation. The left hand edge of the face stands out as a fairly continuous gully running from the top of the left hand edge of the crown to the chin. The nose also appears more in shape. The King Face image is quite small so many of the bumpy features in the image are from pixelation from enlarging the image.
The Morning, King and Evening Faces
Here I will show how the Morning, King and Evening Faces are quite similar by overlaying them on each other. In these overlays I do not change the size or orientation of the images or stretch them in any way. It appears as if the 3 faces are very similar with only slight changes in expression. The Morning Face of course is highly eroded or otherwise low in features but there are many points of correspondence.
Figure 17 shows the Morning Face and Figure 18 an outline of it. Its right eye appears as just under the left eye of the King Face. Figure 19 shows an outline of the Evening Face. The right eye has few features, perhaps this is from a landslide in the eye cavity. Note how the right eye of the King Face becomes the left eye of the Evening Face.
Figure 20 shows the left edge of the King Face crown outlined and Figure 21 shows almost the same shape is the left edge of the crown on the Morning Face. Similarities like this increase the chance that they may be artificial. To keep a rough idea of the probabilities involved I will account each of these correspondences as 10 to 1 against chance. Because each should be independent of each other probabilities multiply in this case, so 6 correspondences for example would be 10 to the power of 6 or 100,000 to 1.
Figure 22 shows there is an oval shape in the King Face crown and a similar shape appears in the morning face crown in Figure 23. To check any of these features the best way is to go to Malin Space Science Systems and download the image numbers referred to, M0203051, M0303483 and E1100360. In Figure 24 there is a line down the center of the King Face forehead and this same line is seen on the Morning Face forehead in Figure 25. Since this is the second point of similarity I increase the odds against chance to 10 squared or a 100 to 1 against chance.
In Figure 26 there is a shape on the forehead on the Evening Face, and this shape reappears on the left center forehead of the King Face crown in Figure 27. This increases the odds to 10 to the power of 3 to 1 against chance.
In Figure 28 there is an oval shape just above the left eye on the King Face and this is also above the left eye on the Morning Face in Figure 29. This increases the odds against chance to 10,000 to 1. Figure 30 shows how the left eye of the King Face appears to be part of a shape to the left, like eye ornamentation. The same shape is seen on the Morning Face in Figure 31, which brings the odds to 100,000 to 1 against chance. In Figure 32 there is a shape next to the left hand ear of the King Face and this same shape is seen in the same position left of the Morning Face in Figure 33. This brings the odds to a million to one against chance.
In Figure 34 the nose of the King Face is shown and the nose of the Morning Face is in the same position and has the same bend to the left, making the odds 10 million to 1 against chance. In Figure 35 the right hand eye of the King Face is shown and the right hand eye of the Morning Face is shown in the same position in Figure 36. This makes the odds 100 million to 1 against chance. The cavity in the center of the King Face eye perfectly matches the position of the small hill in the center of the Morning Face eye, making the odds 1 billion to 1 against chance.
In Figure 37 the jaw of the King Face is shown. Note the lines A and B which are ridges. When overlaid they line up perfectly with the ridges in the same position on the Morning Face in Figure 38. These two make the odds 100 billion to 1 against chance. In Figure 39 there is an oval shape and tear shape near the left eye of the King Face and the same shapes in the same position near the left eye of the Morning Face in Figure 40. This raises the odds to 1 trillion to 1 against chance.
Figure 41 shows the King Face overlaid onto the Morning Face. This brings out the shape of the Morning Face crown, and how the right eye of the Morning Face fits exactly into the shape to the left of the King Face left eye. The left jaw line also aligns perfectly on both as do the noses. This alignment of jaw lines increases the odds to 10 trillion to 1 against chance.
Figures 42, 43, and 44 show the same shape on the King Face, the Evening Face and the Morning Face respectively. To see this is in the same position you can compare it to where it is above the eyes on each face. It lines up perfectly in each overlay. This increases the odds to 1 quadrillion to 1 against chance.
In Figure 45 the left side of the King Face around the ear is shown. The left edge of the Evening Face in Figure 46 when overlaid is obstructed by the King Face nose but the line is in the same place. This increase the odds to 10 quadrillion to 1 against chance. In Figure 47 the nose tip of the King Face is shown as “B” and there is a small N shaped piece at “A”. This acts to balance the shapes of the King Face and the Evening Face, as if “A” and “B” are ornaments. This increases the odds to 100 quadrillion to 1 against chance.
In Figure 48 there is a shape on the King Face forehead shown as “C” and the same shape is on the Evening Face forehead. This increases the odds to 1 quintillion to 1 against chance. In Figure 49 the Evening Face and the King Face are overlaid. There is a good correspondence between the two noses, and the left jaw line which increases the odds against change to 100 quintillion to 1.
In Figure 50 there is a shape above the left eye of the King Face and the same shape is above the left eye of the Evening Face in Figure 51. This raises the odds against chance to 10 sextillion to 1 against chance. The same shape is also above the left eye of the Morning Face in Figure 52 which raises the odds to 100 sextillion to 1 against chance.
In Figure 52 the ornamental shape on the left eye of the King Face is duplicated on the left eye of the Evening Face in Figure 53. This raises the odds against chance to 1 septillion to 1. Figure 54 is another overlay of the Evening Face and the King Face. In Figure 55 the right eye of the King Face has the same left corner as the right eye of the Evening Face though the main part of the Evening Face eye appears to be missing, perhaps from a landslide. This raises the odds against chance to 10 septillion to 1 against chance.
In Figures 56, 57, and 58 the photos show the left eye and a small oval below the right eye on the King Face, the Evening Face, and the Morning Face. The right oval can also be seen as the right eye so in this case the right eye doesn’t become the left eye of the next face, but is just under it. Nonetheless the features are the same in two comparisons so that increases the odds to 1 octillion to 1 against chance.
In Figure 59 can be seen the small eye shape under the King Face left eye which is used by the Morning Face as the right eye. In Figure 60 there is a similar shape just under the left eye of the Evening Face. These alternate eye positions may appear in different seasons to give a different facial expression like for example spring summer and autumn faces. There is probably no way to test this hypothesis without more images though. This raises the odds against chance to10 octillion to 1 against chance. In Figure 61 the King Face has the before mentioned steep left eyebrow and in Figure 62 the same shape is over the Evening Face left eyebrow. In Figure 63 the same shape is also on the Morning Face. This increases the odds to 100 octillion to 1 against chance.
Figures 64 and 65 show the different facial expressions of the King Face as happy and the Evening Face as angry. This may fit into the idea of the changing expressions during the day or seasons. There are not enough details to suggest an expression of the Morning Face.
In this image some of the other features are seen again. The area of interest is shown in Figure 66. The right eye of the King Face is on the edge of the photo and we see another image of the Evening Face or Face 3. Face 4 is again shown. Face 5 is again seen, with the appearance that one would be in the floor of the valley to look up at it. Face 6 is again clear as a head and torso. Face 7 is seen again, which also appears face like when inverted as shown in Figure 67 and outlined in Figure 68. The torso of Face 6 is also outlined here. Overlaying the two images of the Evening Face gives some additional details in Figure 69, and also shows more of Face 4. Figure 70 shows Face 7 and also Face 8 can be seen. There is another face just to the right of Face 8 shown by the right arrow. Figure 71 show Faces 7 and 9 outlined. In Figure 72 there is a possible Face 10, and in Figure 73 outlined. “A” may be the right eye, “B” the nose, and “C” the jaw line. “D” may be the crown and “E” the left eye.
This photo reimages part of the other side of the valley. Figure 74 shows the area of interest. The Crown shape to the left of the King Face in Figure 4 is upside down in the bottom left of Figure 74. In Figure 75 there are two unclear face like shapes shown in Figures 76 and 77. The face in Figure 76 called Face 11 also appears in M0203051 in Figure 77. One can also imagine the landform comprising Face 11 and 12 as another overall Face 13 in Figure 78. Figure 79 shows two face like outlines opposite the King Face. While not having any features the pale areas are face like in shape, so they could be blanks for carving into. If so then estimating the age of the crater would yield clues into how old these would be. In Figure 80 the crown shape from Figure 4 is shown again from E1100360. Two eye shapes may be there as outlined which would be consistent with a buried face.
The area of the
Malin Space Science Systems say on their web site that they have accumulated over 150,000 images so with so many it is likely unusual coincidences can occur. Here we have 3 photos, M0203051, M0303483, and E1100360 so one could say that faces like this occurred in one photo out of 50,000 approximately. Add in other sites and the incidence of arguably artificial objects is probably less than 1 in 5,000 images. So for any civilization to have occurred the signs that remain are very few, though we might expect Mount Rushmore like faces to last the longest, perhaps hundreds of millions of years in a low pressure atmosphere. Certainly the more fragile pieces of modern buildings would be long gone in that time frame.
Analysing the Morning, King and Evening faces for similarities gives a rough guide to how unusual the formation is. We can rule out geological formation repeating in patterns like this as these is no such mechanism. Also if face forming geological mechanisms were as common on Mars as they are in this valley the whole of Mars would be covered in faces. Assuming for example 13 faces in 3 images this would give in 150,000 images about 65,000 faces on the average that people would have seen so far. If so then even if they were all natural such a spectacle would force a serious examination of the subject.
To give a rough idea of probability say for example there are 13 faces in the King’s Valley and perhaps overall in round numbers on Mars 30. What then are the chances that 13 of the 30 would occur in 3 adjacent images? If there are 30 faces on Mars then that would give a face on average in one image out of 5,000. Grouping into 3 images like the King’s valley this would be 1 face per 1666 triplet of images. In the King’s Valley there are 13 so the odds against this should be approximately 1 chance in 1,666 to the power of 13 or 765,258,051 against chance.
Comparing the Morning Face, the King Face, and the Evening Face also gives us an approximate idea of the improbability of the formation. It is clear that each of these similarities between the three faces is unusual or things like this would be all over Mars. The total against chance assuming 10 to 1 odds amounts to 100 octillion to 1 or 10^ 30 to 1. Assume though that we say that each similarity is only 3 to 1 against occurring by random chance, then this number would be 3^30 to 1 which is still roughly 2X10^14 or about 200 trillion to 1.
It would be easy to hypothesise some kind of Chariots of the Gods like scenario of aliens visiting Mars to build something like this, or that long ago Mars might have evolved a humanoid civilization of which only fragments remain. That goes beyond the scope of this paper except to point out the NASA Rovers currently on Mars are finding abundant evidence of ancient flowing water on Mars. This removes one of the arguments to a previous civilization at least.
Until we actually visit Mars and drive into the King’s Valley we can never know for sure. All we can do is examine the photos and make up our own minds. The probabilities mentioned if accurate prove that these formations must be either artificial or have formed by some kind of common factor, but the methodology could also be flawed in some way. As a guide though it does indicate the King’s Valley is one of the most unusual places on Mars.
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